We have prepared for you a presentation for the lesson
Augmented Reality
or AR technologies
Necessary Resources:

1. 3D Artist Coloring Prints. Preferably give to students prior to the lesson or ask them beforehand to bring ready ones from home. Download URL: https://goo.gl/b8WWDH
2. 3D Artist App. Download URL: Google Play and AppStore.
3. Projector for video demonstrations.
4. Classroom board, chalk or markers.
Topic introduction. Motivation
For starters let's try to answer some questions. What is reality? For example, when you are experiencing some vivid dreams in your sleep, is that a reality or not? And what about things you see in the movies? Or when you play computer games?

Hearing out some answers.
Teacher's reaction to the answers.

Reality is all that could actually happen to us in a conscious state. All the other things like dreams, cinema or computer games change this reality.

Have you ever wished you could change or augment your reality?
Hearing out some answers.

Teacher's reaction to the answers.

Nowadays attempts to change or augment reality are quite frequent and done with many various technical means.

For example, we can use virtual reality or so-called VR headsets with 360-degree cameras to change our surrounding reality.
Terminology: Virtual reality is an illusion of reality created with the help of computer systems that provide visual, audible and other sensations.

VR headset is a special device that looks like big glasses and is made of two screens located separately in front of each eye. Those screens display slightly different images of the same object which creates the illusion of tri-dimensional space.

360-degree cameras are special cameras allowing us to shoot videos with a 360° viewing angle. The main advantage of such video is that it allows the viewer to pick the most interesting view angle on his own, without camera operator or director imposed restrictions. Video shot in this particular format has to be watched multiple times, as it is simply impossible to see everything the first try.
Today we are going to talk about one more kind of "reality", namely augmented one and its characteristics. Sounds interesting, doesn't it?

Simply put, unlike virtual reality which requires full immersion into the virtual environment, augmented reality uses our surroundings and merely puts a certain part of virtual information like graphics or sounds on top of it. Because the virtual and real worlds coexist harmoniously augmented reality users can try out completely new, improved world, where virtual information is used as an additional useful tool providing help in day-to-day activities.

Most influential people working in the field of information technologies believe that our future is going to be associated mainly with augmented and not virtual reality. In the upcoming years, the use of augmented reality in daily life is going to grow exponentially. Let's find out what is it exactly and where it could be applied.
Knowledge update
Let's try to determine what we know about augmented reality so far. What do we associate with given term?

With the help of children's responses, the teacher draws a chain of associations on the board. Augmented reality (associations: future, technology, smartphone, tablet, computer, shopping, games, navigation, adventures, travel, and advertising)
One of the best examples of augmented reality is Pokémon Go game. Raise hands, whoever tried to catch Pokémons? Can you tell us, where you found them?
Reference note: According to the rules of Pokémon GO, the player moves in real world whereas his character travels on the virtual map using the GPS feature. If a Pokémon is nearby, the game notifies the user and prompts him to catch it using the smartphone or tablet camera.

Pokémon image is put on top of the surrounding environment live image obtained from the camera. The type of the creature we can find depends on the location. For example, water Pokémons can be encountered at river banks or fountains (Wikipedia).
Do you know any other games or apps using technologies of augmented reality?

Examples of AR applications (discussion and demonstration):

If you use Instagram or Snapchat to publish photos and videos, you surely know Stories function, which offers various filters. Special algorithms of the apps recognize peoples' faces when the camera is on and put funny masks-filters on them in real time: animal ears, big eyes, colourful stars or bright hearts – anything your heart desires!
Now let's check out this video of a satellite crashing in someone's backyard:
Reference: App name FxGuru: Movie FX Director.
Do you think it really happened?

Of course not, this clip was made using a special app that allows shooting videos and adding some unreal effects on top of them.
Understanding / comprehension
of the knowledge
3.1 Augmented reality overview.

Augmented reality enriches our physical world with the help of digital data in real time and is provided by virtue of special electronic devices.

Which ones exactly?
answer: Smartphone, tablet and AR headsets.

Unlike augmented reality, virtual one immerses us in its environment completely and does not overlap with reality.

Drawing a diagram on the board:

AR uses our surrounding environment and simply puts certain virtual information on top of it, for example, graphics, sound or reactions to the touch.

Drawing a diagram on the board:
To better understand what is augmented reality and its possibilities we are going to complete an awesome challenge.

You have some coloring pages in front of you. Color them with crayons or markers as you wish (or show, how you did it at home).

Now with help of a special mobile app 3D Artist your pictures will undergo a magical transformation.
Working with smartphones and 3D Artist app in the classroom:

3D Artist application transforms ordinary prints into detailed 3D images. It is important to download and print special drawings in pdf format for the whole magical transformation to actually work https://goo.gl/b8WWDH

What comes next is simple: color a dragon, a girl or a house, or whatever else you wish with your crayons or markers then open the app, turn on the camera and make sure that the drawing is fully visible on the screen. Once it is done, relax and enjoy the magic.

Attention: 3D Artist app works only with special images.
3D Artist in Google Play and AppStore.

Sample Work created with the application: https://vimeo.com/229846713
3.2 Types of augmented reality.

There are several different technologies using AR, let briefly discuss all of them.

The first type is marker-based AR, sometimes also called image recognition. This type of technology uses a camera and a special passive visual marker like QR code, which shows programmed result only when camera sensor reads it. This way we can single out virtual objects from the real world.
Reference note: QR Code — Quick Response Code
Learn here about the workings of marker-based
augmented reality:
The second type is markerless AR, sometimes also called location or GPS-based augmented reality. To provide information about your location it uses global positioning system, digital compass, speed sensor or accelerometer with which your device is equipped. Markerless AR is mostly used for indicating directions, searching for certain places like coffee shops, museums or in other location-oriented applications.
Reference: GPS Global Positioning System is a high precision positioning technology measuring signals from special satellites orbiting around the Earth.

By measuring the time in which the signal passes through (a message containing information about time, position of the satellite from which it was sent and approximate data of all GPS system satellites' orbits), the receiver can estimate the distance to satellites. Received coordinates are converted into visual form (latitude and longitude or location on the map) and in this way presented to the end user.
The third type of augmented reality is based on projectors. This sort of AR projects computer images on physical surfaces. Special applications help to ease the interactions between human and projected image by sensing the moments we touch the displayed pictures.

Video demonstration of projector-based augmented reality (optional):
The fourth type of augmented reality is based on VIO. Given abbreviation stands for "Visual Inertial Odometry". VIO AR technology helps to track the position and navigate the surroundings with special sensors and camera.

This allows us to create an exact 3D model of the surroundings around the device, update it in real time, determine positions in it, transfer this data to all applications and put additional layers on top of it. The possibilities of this technology are truly unique: you can measure distances, put various objects inside the interior and interact with them. VIO has the potential to become the most promising technology in the AR field. It is already used by famous tech giants the likes of Google and Apple.

Odometry uses data from motion sensors to estimate the change in position over time.
Talking about each technology we can simultaneously
draw on the classroom board.
Now that we have discussed all the augmented reality technologies, who can tell me which technology exactly is used in the 3D Artist app we worked with today?

Answer: Marker-based AR

I am sure you can understand now that augmented reality technologies can be very diverse. If we are able to effectively use virtual information as an additional tool of perception, we can soon bring about a great change in our everyday life.
STEP 3.3
Uses of AR
Possibilities of AR technologies are practically limitless, it can be applied to almost all aspects of our lives. Augmented reality is going to significantly change the way we communicate, use information and run businesses. This creates a great demand for people with highly specialized expertise not only within AR technology space but all others as well.
Practical open-end question /
discussion exercise:
Let's talk about the possible uses of AR technologies. We will form our thoughts into a "tree of ideas".

Students speak out their opinions and create a "tree of ideas" with the teacher (where the trunk is AR and branches — possible uses of it). Teacher leads the children to needed areas (education, medicine, aviation, marketing, tourism, design, shopping, and games) and after that, talks a bit about each, one presenting a relevant video if possible.
Education. Google Expeditions app can make the learning process more interactive thanks to special tours during which young explorers can look at various objects while the teacher is talking about them.
Medicine. Company Vipaar offers an amazing solution combining telemedicine and AR. With the help of Google Glass and Vipaar app surgeons can remotely assist their colleagues projecting their hands onto operating surgeon's glasses.

Aviation. AR has been used by military pilots for quite a while already. Special screens and helmets display information about jet fighter's systems and help with precise targeting. These days AR also starts to appear in civil aviation. For example, company Aero Glass created special augmented reality glasses that help pilots to navigate their surroundings, follow the route and get additional information during the flight.
Marketing. Various brands use AR technologies to launch more creative, interactive and engaging campaigns in hopes of attracting more attention to their products. For example, to advertise the fifth season of "The Walking Dead" show an AR system which brought zombies to real life was installed at the bus stop.
Tourism. Young generations usually discover the world through direct engagement. For example, Catalonian National Museum of Art actively uses AR to help visitors navigate around their complex hallways and learn about the exhibits in a more interactive manner.
Design. Furnishing the apartment is much easier now since instead of having to imagine whether we are going to like something or not, we can just virtually put it in our home using AR app Furniture Dropping.
Shopping. As we do our shopping, AR-based apps help us navigate the many isles and find the optimal way to the product we need. Additionally, we might be able to get more detailed information about discounts and other special offers.
Games. Surely everyone here experienced the Pokémon Go madness in one way or another. Some might have personally run around the city looking for the Pokémons and others were irritated bypassing people staring at their phones and walking right under their feet. This, however, was only the beginning; most interesting apps will appear after the official release of the ARKit framework on iOS11.
Open-end question/discussion exercise:
If previously learned about
virtual reality technology
Today we discussed all the augmented reality technologies. Now we can compare them to virtual reality. Please, "take a stand" between those two technologies.

Pick the one that matches your point of view. Next, you are going to get some time to prepare the justification of your choice.

After that, ask the students to take sides again and see if anyone changed their mind. Further, summarize the results according to the majority of votes for a particular technology.

Either in a certain field or everyday life:

From teens point of view...
Practice exercise
Exercise "Reflective screen"
Write down in notebooks, on the board or the screen. Students give a sentence, one after another:
- Today I learned...
- I completed my task...
- Now I'll be able to...
- I managed...
- I was surprised...
- I gained...
- I'll try...
- This lesson helped me to...
- The most interesting thing...
- It was difficult...
- I understood that...
- I got a feeling, that...
- I discovered...
- I managed...
- I want to...
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