The lesson
Renewable Energy of the Future:
Sun, Wind and Water
The lesson consists of some theory, discussion, video demonstration, practical assignment smartphones, and homework.
1
45-90 minutes
Duration
2
Beginner
Difficulty Level
3
10+ years
Adapted for Age
Open Lesson Presentation
Goals:

  • Students who've listened to this course will have a basic understanding of what renewable energy is and which technologies are used for harnessing it;
  • Students will get acquainted with the words used with natural science and engineering;
  • Students will consider current use of sun, wind and water energy, discuss in the classroom the impact and benefits of renewable energy in their everyday lives, and learn about professions that can allow people to explore more deeply the possibilities of using green energy.
Note: The lesson is built on the BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) principle; so we encourage students to use their own smartphones while doing practical tasks.
This Lesson Contains:

  • Studying materials / Lesson outline
  • Questions for the discussion
  • Videos
  • Slides / projection images
  • Tasks for individual work
  • The task for working in groups
  • Tasks for working with personal smartphones/tablets
  • Printed materials
  • Homework
For This Lesson You'll Need:

  • Projector for showing video and slides;
  • Chalkboard, chalk or markers;
  • Smartphones on Android or iOS platform with Futurio App;
  • Futurio App: AppStore, Google Play
  • Presentation: Open
  • Videos
  • Printed А4-marker for work in class and homework: Download

How To Use This Lesson

This lesson is designed for an academic hour (45 minutes), but the teacher can also extend it to 90 minutes. An important element of the lesson is the students' ability to express their ideas freely, learn critical thinking, analyze facts, and to engage in the discussion.

Students are allowed to use their own smartphones during the lesson, but it is important that they download relevant applications in advance. The teacher needs to prepare printed worksheets with special markers for the practical assignment.

The lesson is built in a way that allows students to answer the questions: "What do I know about augmented reality?", "What do I feel when I interact with the augmented reality?", "How can I use augmented reality in my life?"

On this page, you'll find a lesson plan that contains the teaching material, a list of slides and videos with directions on when to move to the next slide, as well as recommendations on class activity at certain points of the lesson. You will also find important information in Comments for speaker inside the presentation.

You can conduct the lesson "as is" or allow more time and attention for certain parts.

After the lesson, please share your feedback with us. Was the lesson interesting to you? Was it easy to understand the topic? Were there enough materials and videos? What additional questions did students ask? How can we improve on the lesson?

You will find the feedback form at the end of the lesson. Let's talk!

Good luck!
The Lesson Structure
Topic Introduction
Part 1, 5 minutes
  • Teacher starts the lesson with an interesting, lively discussion of the topic, raises questions for students, motivates them to think critically, creatively, freely, and moderates the discussion.
  • Lesson elements: discussion.
Actualization of Knowledge
Part 2, 10 minutes
  • Teacher clearly formulates the goal of the lesson, explains the role of renewable energy sources in society and directly in the lives of students, and outlines the benefits of being knowledgeable about the topic.
  • Lesson elements: theoretical part, notes, discussion.
Awareness / Acquisition of knowledge
Part 3, 10 minutes
  • Teacher explains theoretical material and terminology, demonstrates examples of various energy sources usage in real life.
  • Lesson elements: theoretical part, creative thinking, discussion, video demonstration.
Reflection
Part 4, 10 minutes
  • Teacher initiates the discussion to find out whether students have understood the material and whether they've changed the views they expressed at the beginning of the lesson.
  • Lesson elements: video demonstration, discussion, creative thinking, critical thinking, notes.
Practical assignment, BYOD
Part 5, 5 minutes
  • Practical work in groups or individually with the Futurio AR-application (BYOD).
  • Lesson elements: BYOD, individual work, group work, practical work, critical thinking, analytical thinking.
Homework
Part 6, 2 minutes
  • Teacher encourages students to continue studying on their own with a help of an interactive homework.
  • Lesson elements: homework, individual work, analytical thinking, critical thinking
part 1 (5 minutes)
Topic Introduction
Has it happened to you that you play your favorite game on your smartphone or watch an interesting video and suddenly your battery dies?

What do you need to do? It seems to "feed" the phone with energy again so that it starts to work. At the same time it needs "feeding" almost every day. Right?

Who already knows where energy comes from and how it is turned into a current in our outlets?

Usually, for this purpose, it is first necessary to extract from the ground natural resources such as coal, oil or natural gas.

Then it must be prepared (for example, separated from stones and debris), and bring to a power station.

At the power plant, these fossil fuels are burned. Heat, which is released during combustion, turns water into steam.

The steam forces a turbine to move, which in turn is connected to electric generator.

The electric generator generates electricity that travels through wires from the power plant to our homes.
Slide 1. Discussion
Students share their thoughts.
But there are other sources of energy - they are also called "alternative" or "renewable."

Today, we will talk about renewable energy of the future and technologies that will be abl
Slide 2
part 2 (10 minutes)
The actualization of Knowledge
The resources we just talked about - coal, oil and natural gas - are not endless. They are exhaustible. Just like the battery charge on your smartphone.

If humanity continues to use natural resources, it may happen that one day there will be nothing to use for charging our phones. Do you agree?

Imagine how life would change if we could not use electricity?

Tips: Heat and light would disappear from our homes, you wouldn'tt be able to use household appliances, telephone, TV, computer, to play games. Trams and trains would stop. Important institutions will shut down: schools, hospitals, airports.
Discussion. Students express opinions about the world without electricity.
Indeed, it wouldn't be easy! And now look out the window.
Who sees and can call out sources of energy?

Tips:

Direct students' answers to the side of renewable energy sources: we see the sun, how the wind moves leaves on trees. The river may be seen.
All these can charge your smartphone and even supply our entire school with energy.

How is that possible? Let's understand.
Discussion. Students offer different energy sources.
So, what are the energy sources?

As you already know, energy sources can be of two types:
renewable and non-renewable.
Slide 3. Notes.
Types of energy sources.
Non-renewable energy sources include: oil, natural gas, coal.

According to preliminary estimates, we have about two hundred years before the reserves of all kinds of combustible minerals are exhausted.

But time is not the only problem. The traditional types of energy, which are mainly based on combustion, cause incredible damage to our planet and downgrade the quality of our lives significantly.

These problems are the main driving forces behind the search for and use of new renewable energy sources, which by the way are always available and will never run out.
Slide 4-5. Notes.
Non-renewable energy sources.
Let's consider what we can rely on in the future.
Renewable energy sources include:

  • sun energy
  • wind energy
  • water energy
  • geothermal energy
  • hydrogen energy
  • biofuels
  • fusion energy
Let's consider how the main types of renewable energy work.
Slide 6-7. Notes.
Renewable energy sources.
part 3 (10 minutes)
Awareness / Acquisition of Knowledge
Sun Energy

Among all the renewable sources, many people have the highest expectations about solar energy.

The first working technologies appeared about half a century ago. And now we have learned how to use them quite effectively.

Sun energy can be collected by panels installed on roofs of buildings (for house use) or on open areas (for industrial use).

Here's how it works: The sun shines onto specially-designed solar panels.

The surface of solar panels is made up of two layers of special material - silicon.
One of the layers has a negative charge, and the other one is positive.

When the upper layer "catches" the sun's rays, electrons inside the layer begin to move and "push". They move so much that they push the electrons of the lower layer so that these in turn also begin to move.

Just at the boundary of the two layers that are constantly pushing and interacting with each other, electricity is generated.
Slide 8
It moves by wires to the electrical grid or to special batteries that store this energy for future use.
Here's what the home battery used to store "clean" energy looks like.

If you do not store extra energy in the battery, you can sell it by redirecting it out to the city's electricity distribution grid.

Additional information:
The photo shows a lithium-ion battery manufactured by Tesla.
Slide 9
Lithium-ion battery manufactured by Tesla.
Solar energy is one of the cheapest types of electricity. Let's think: what are its benefits?

Tips:

The sun rises every day, all year round;
the sun can not be grabbed, it belongs to all;
the sun can not be monopolized, politicized, bought or sold;
the sun will never end;
the sun is easy to predict: its "quantity" and "availability".
Slide 10. Discussion
Students express thoughts about the benefits of solar energy.
Here is an example of how solar energy can supply power to a whole island:

Kauai Island with a population of 58,000 is part of the Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean. One American company built a solar plant with 13 megawatt solar panels and 52 megawatt batteries.

Thanks to this, the islanders enjoy energy regardless of the time of day and they have reduced fossil fuel consumption by almost 6 million liters per year.

****
Additional information:
Tesla Company.

Such projects are becoming popular, as the efficiency of solar panels increases and their price falls.

Slide 11. Video showing.
Additional information (optional):

Some scientists believe that solar energy can be used even more efficiently. Since the earth's atmosphere absorbs 55-60 percent of the solar radiation, for greater efficiency, solar stations could be located in space.

Mirrors on satellites would concentrate energy onto special collectors or onto solar panels. After that it will be transmitted to the earth by microwave or laser beams.

In early 2015, the Japan Aerospace Research Agency said they were able to convert 1.8 kilowatts of electricity into a microwave and transmit it at 50 meters distance. Thus they confirmed the possibility of the project.
Slide 12
Wind energy
We can also get electricity from the wind.
Perhaps you never realized that the wind is also in a sense the energy of the sun.

Do you remember from your natural science lessons where the wind comes from and how it is connected with the sun?

Hint: The wind actually occurs due to the action of the sun. Everything around us - any surface of the earth: water, soil, trees, sand - absorbs solar radiation, saves it, warms up and reflects or releases it.

This happens unevenly, at different intervals of time. Because of this, air above the surface of the earth is heated and cooled at different speeds.

Warm air, as you know, goes up, and cold comes down. This air movement we call the wind.

Depending on different circumstances (atmospheric pressure for example), it may be stronger or almost invisible.

Next time, on the way to school, note whether the wind is strong.

After all, the energy of the wind can be converted into another energy - electric or mechanical.
Slide 13. Discussion
Students express thoughts on how sun and wind energies are connected.
The electricity generated by special wind turbines is clean renewable energy.
Why is it called clean?

Hint: Because fossil fuels that pollute the atmosphere, soil and water are not burnt for its production.

Clean energy production does not have any harmful waste.

Nowadays, humanity already receives about 3 percent of the global electricity demand from wind power.

The power and quality of turbines for windmills increases annually, and by 2020, the amount of wind energy will quadruple.

However, the wind has one nasty feature - it blows with varying force. Sometimes that is too slow to spin a turbine and sometimes just the opposite. When it is too fast; then the turbine is stopped to prevent being damaged.

Power supply is usually stopped at such times.
Slide 14. Discussion
Students express their thoughts on pure energy.
Additional information (optional):

Some companies* offer to use flying windmills as a solution to wind turbulence problem.

A windmill is taken up by a special airbus to 300-600 meters above the ground; a turbine mounted on it will be able to produce twice as much power as a ground installation of the same size.

At the moment, one company* has already managed to test 30 kilowatt wind turbine with a special autonomous system that adjusts to the desired height and folds up in case of emergencies.

*Altaeros Company
Slide 15. Video showing.
Water energy.

We have been using water energy since the 19th century, when the first hydro-electric power stations operating on rivers were built.

Many years ago, grain was milled with the help of such energy.
Slide 16
Have you ever seen such a mill?

Here's how it worked:

The water current in the river rotated a wheel, converting the kinetic energy of water into the mechanical work of the wheel. The movement of the wheel milled grain, crushing it to make flour so it was possible to bake bread.

There is no need for such mills in the modern world; this work is done by special machines.

However, the principle of windmills is now used in order to get not mechanical, but electric energy.
Slide 17
Water energy can be obtained in one of these ways:

  • With the help of sea waves energy (or the energy of tides).
  • At hydro-electric power plants ( HPPs) and hydro-electric power stations (HPP);
  • With the help of river energy ( River bed HPP);

    Sometimes several methods can be used at power plants at the same time, and this is normal - dams and stations are usually built in places where water has a naturally strong force.


The energy of sea waves is still being explored. Since the waves can be quite powerful, it is not so easy to construct a relevant plant to harness them.

The working principle is quite similar to one used for generating energy from tides; so let's briefly examine some features of this type. So how does the energy of tides work?

During the tide, water fills special tanks near the shore. These tanks are also called dams. At low tide, the water moves backwards. It is this reverse flow of water that moves the turbine and generates energy.

For this process, it is important that the height difference between tides be as high as possible, at least 10 meters.
Slide 18. Notes.
Ways of obtaining water energy.
Additional information (optional):

One Scottish company* has created an offshore wave generator **. It is located not far from the shore at a depth of 10-16 meters.

A float is attached to the bottom by powerful hinges; waves rock the float and pump the water onto the shore; this current of water rotates a standard hydroelectric turbine. One such installation has capacity of 800 kilowatts.

*Aquamarine Power company
** Oyster wave generator.
Slide 19. Video showing.
Hydropower plants work in another way. They combine three elements: water, air and sun. You have probably heard about the water cycle in nature. Who will tell us?

Hint: The water cycle is due to the movement and evaporation of water vapor in the atmosphere, as well as its condensation, precipitation and drainage back into reservoirs.
Right, the sun evaporates water from the surfaces of lakes, seas and oceans. So clouds are formed. The winds carry clouds to a height where they condense and fall down in the form of snow or rain.

Rainfall runs back to reservoirs - rivers, seas and oceans. It is on the way to reservoirs that hydro-electric power stations are usually built. They intercept the energy of flowing water and convert it into electric energy.

In our time, hydro-electric power plants are reliable sources of renewable energy and produce over 15 percent of the world's total electricity.
Discussion. Students tell how the water cycle happens in the nature.
Today, hydropower is well developed and accounts for 25% of the world's electricity production.

Let's take a look at what hydro-electric power plant looks like.
Slide 20
Geothermal energy (optional).

Let's also consider other types of "clean" energy such as geothermal energy. It is less popular than wind, sun, or water but no less effective, and for some countries it is very important.

For example, in Iceland and the Philippines it accounts for one third of all electricity generated. That's a lot.

Geothermal energy is a way of transforming thermal energy of the earth's interior into electrical energy.

Recently, Iceland began to develop a new, promising deep drilling technology. Such wells will have a depth of 5 kilometers or more and will reach down to the lava.

Due to this, the water pumped there will reach temperatures from 400 to 1000 degrees Celsius and turn into fluid - a state of matter when the difference between its liquid and gas form disappears.

It is planned that such a well will output 50 megawatts, which is ten times more than a standard geothermal well.
Slide 21
Hydrogen energy (optional).

Hydrogen is a transparent, odorless gas, the most common chemical element in the universe. On earth, it is present only with oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen. Have you heard about H2O water formula?

To use hydrogen as a source of energy, it must be pre-separated from other elements.

In the chemical reaction, when hydrogen and oxygen are combined, a significant amount of energy is emitted, almost twice as high as when burning gasoline. As a result of this reaction, normal pure water forms.

It is through this reaction that fuel cells work; its principle of operation is the same as in conventional batteries. Hydrogen fuel cells are installed in cars and used as a power source for houses.
Slide 22
Take a look at a video (optional).
Additional information to explain video:

Hydrogen (or H2);
Oxygen (or O2);
Gas Entry - a hole through which gas (hydrogen or oxygen) enters;
Anode / Cathode(electrically positive / negative pole);
Electrolyte (the substance itself does not conduct electric current; but when dissolved or molten, it breaks down into ions and begins to conduct electric current);
Water Exit - liquid outlet;
H20 - water

Today, hydrogen production is quite expensive compared to other fuels - for example, one and a half times more expensive than gasoline.

But since large car manufacturers* are interested in hydrogen energy, we can hope for cheaper pricing and technology popularization in the near future.

Additional information: For example, Toyota, Honda and Hyundai.
Slide 23. Video showing.
Biofuels (optional).

When we talk about biofuel, endless yellow rapeseed fields immediately come to mind; most biofuels are produced from this plant nowadays.

Although such a fuel is very popular in European countries, it is extremely inefficient because it uses up the same land areas where essential food can be grown.

In addition, such crops as rapeseed take a lot of nutrients out of the soil, which becomes a problem itself.

But what if we could use algae as a raw material?

It was this very question that one American company* ventured to answer and built the world's first plant to convert algae to biofuels.

Unlike other plants, growing algae require only water, sun and carbon dioxide, which our planet is so contaminated with.

When the algae are collected and separated from the water it becomes so clean it can be used for drinking. Concentrated algae mass produces high-octane fuel or diesel - just like ordinary oil, and the residue can be used as fertilizer.

Additional information:
*Algae Systems company
Slide 24
Thermonuclear Fusion Energy (optional).

The energy of atomic nuclei is another way of generating clean energy. These atomic nuclei consist of protons and neutrons. They have a very strong bond, and when it is disrupted, a huge amount of energy is released.

To understand it better, the fusion reaction is exactly what's happening on the sun, empowering it to shine so brightly.

Such a reaction can occur under extreme temperatures, 150 million degrees Celsius, when gas is converted into plasma - the fourth state of matter after solid, liquid and gas form.

In plasma, because of the extreme heat, electrons move out from their normal orbits leaving atomic nuclei to move chaotically with incredible speed.

Tremendous pressure is created and these particles bump into each other and fuse, forming new elements while a lot of energy is released.
Slide 25
Part 4
Reflection
So today we talked a lot about different types of energy.
Remind me which of them are renewable and which are not:

. Wind (renewable energy source)
. Coal ( non renewable energy source)
. Natural gas (non-renewable)
. Oil (non-renewable)
. Sun (renewable)
. Water (renewable)
Slide 26. Discussion.
Students demonstrate understanding of energy sources.
And what else have you learned?
What is pure energy and why is it called so?

Hint:
Clean or "green" energy is produced when no fossil fuels are burned; burning fossil fuels pollutes the atmosphere, soil and water.
What is the advantage of the sun, wind and water energy?

Tips:
. Clean energy production does not have any harmful waste.
. These sources of energy are inexhaustible.
.Power generation from these sources is not based on combustion and therefore does not harm the environment.
. These energy sources cannot be usurped, bought or sold; there is an infinite quantity of it in almost every corner of the planet (except for water).
. The amount of energy from these sources and its availability can be easily predicted.

What is better - renewable or non renewable sources of energy?
Discussion. Students answer questions.
And where do we get energy from?
Slide 27-28
Розділ 5
Practical work with Futurio App,
BYOD
Futurio app
With the help of the application, the lessons about new technologies will become more interesting and interactive.
And now, let's use our smartphones to check how renewable energy can be used in life. To that end, we need to complete a supertask. You have special drawings.

1. Get your smartphones or tablets.
2. Open the Futurio app.
3. Put a picture in front of you.
4. Point the smartphone camera so that the entire picture can fit on the screen.
5. What do you see?

Take a look at the picture from all sides. Bring the camera closer to the picture or move it further away.

Touch the screen to turn on the light.
Printed А4-marker for work in class and homework: Download
Slides 29. Practical work with AR-markers and Futurio application.
Discussion. Students work in groups or independently, examine how a piece of solar panel works, analyze what has been seen and sum up what has been learnt in class.
Printed А4-marker for work in class and homework
Questions for class work (independent or in groups) or homework (recommended):

What type does this source of energy belong to?
- Water energy
- Sun Energy
- Wind energy
- Geothermal energy
- Hydrogen energy
- Biofuel
- Thermonuclear Fusion Energy

What are the three technological devices used to power this house? Fill the appropriate fields. (Power grid, solar panels, battery to store "clean" energy)

On the picture, find an object that does not belong to the house but also feeds on "pure" energy. What is this object? (Electric Car)

____________________________________________

Write down the benefits of using this power source:
1 ________________________________________________
2 ________________________________________________
Test / Homework. Students answer test questions on the sheets with drawings.
Part 6
Homework
Take the pictures home. On the sheets with pictures, you will find test questions. Work at home with the app, take a closer look at what you see on the screen. Answer the test questions.

Good luck!
Slides 30-31
Open Lesson Presentation

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